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Recent Articles 2022

Comparative Study of Air Exchange Rates in A High-Rise Residence by Using Both Tracer Gas Dilution and Fan Pressurization Methods

Comparative Study of Air Exchange Rates in A High-Rise Residence by Using Both Tracer Gas Dilution and Fan Pressurization Methods

By RISC | 3 weeks ago

  High-rise condominium living is becoming increasingly popular in the city while urban heat island effect has caused residents to close windows and use air conditioning unit all night. There is a buildup of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within bedroom(s) of residential unit that will affect the quality of sleep and productivity on the following day. Thus, providing sufficient bedroom air exchange is highly important in order to maintain low CO2 concentration level within the residence. This study investigates room air change rate by conducting fan pressurization and tracer gas dilution experiments in a 30 m2 one-bedroom type unit of a condominium in Bangkok, Thailand. The two method yields similar air exchange results, achieving 1.215 ACH via fan pressurization and 1.387 ACH via tracer gas dilution when bedroom and living room spaces are connected to each other. The air exchange rate and CO2 concentration level are acceptable since the measured air change rate is higher than that required by design standards and CO2 concentration level is found to be lower than 1,000 ppm. After closing the bedroom door, however, CO2 concentration rises rapidly above 1,000 ppm while ACH drops to a level lower than suggested by design standards. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that bedroom of conventional high-rise residential unit requires higher air exchange rate to ensure appropriate CO2 concentration level at night while occupants are sleeping.   Read full research article at: https://so02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jars/article/view/156312 References: Ai, Z. T., Mak, C. M., Cui, D. J., & Xue, P. (2016). Ventilation of air-conditioned residential buildings: A case study in Hong Kong. Energy and Buildings, 127, 116–127.   Cheng, P. L., & Li, X. (2018). Air infiltration rates in the bedrooms of 202 residences and estimated parametric infiltration rate distribution in Guangzhou, China. Energy & Buildings, 164, 219-225.   Jareemit, D., Julpanwattana, P., & Choruengwiwat, J. (2015). Impact of outdoor air exchange rates on sleep quality and the next-day performance with the application of energy recovery ventilator. Journal of Architectural/ Planning Research and Studies (JARS), 14(1), 22-32.   Schofield, W. (1985). Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Human nutrition. Clinical nutrition, 39(1), 5–41 . Sreshthaputra, A. (2016). Ventilation effectiveness of door-sided operable shutter (air post) in high-rise residential building. Academic Journal of Architecture, 65, 111-124.   Sherman, M. (1987). Estimation of infiltration from leakage and climate indicators. Energy and Buildings, 10(1), 81–86.   Strøm-Tejsen, P., Zukowska, D., Wargocki, P., & Wyon, D. P. (2014). The effects of bedroom air quality on sleep. Proceedings of the 13th International conference on indoor air quality and climate - indoor air 2014 [HA0506] International Society for Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ). Hong Kong.   Bibliography:   American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers [ASHRAE]. (2010). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. Atlanta, GA: Author.   American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers [ASHRAE]. (2016). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2016, Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. Atlanta, GA: Author.   American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM]. (2003). Standard test method for determining air leakage rate by fan pressurization. ASTM E779-03. USA.: Author.   Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. (2006). Environmental design: CIBSE guide A. London: Author.   Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V. (2012). Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics (DIN EN 15251:2012-12). German: Author.   Ministerial Regulations No.39. (1994). Issued under the building control Act (1979). Thailand: Author.   Persily, A., & Jonge, L. de. (2017). Carbon dioxide generation rates for building occupants. Indoor Air, 27, 868-879.

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Impact of Outdoor Air Exchange Rates on Sleep Quality and the Next-Day Performance with Application of Energy Recovery Ventilator

Impact of Outdoor Air Exchange Rates on Sleep Quality and the Next-Day Performance with Application of Energy Recovery Ventilator

By RISC | 3 weeks ago

  Sleep quality can affect human health and the next-day performance. High indoor CO2 concentration levels due to insufficient supplied air ventilation could cause poor sleep quality. Bedrooms in condominiums in Thailand commonly uses a wall-mounted split type system without supplied outdoor air ventilation. The rooms are typically constructed having airtight envelopes which have air infiltration rates ranging from 0.4-0.64 ACH. This study aims to evaluate the impact of increased ventilation rates on sleep quality and the next-day performance, and the surveys were collected from two occupants living in a one-bedroom condominium. The field measurement and survey were conducted for twenty days with supplied outdoor airflow rates at 0, 40, and 60 m3 hr-1 through an energy recovery ventilator (ERV). The room air exchange rates were calculated from a linear regression method obtained from a decay tracer gas technique using indoor carbon dioxide generated by occupants. To overcome the maximum limit of CO2 concentration level specified in the standard health guidelines, the ERV unit has to supply an outdoor air ventilation rate of 60 m3 hr-1. Overall, the increase in outdoor air ventilation rates can improve sleep quality by 2-13 percent and occupants have better work performance  the next day by 2-20 percent. The increase of outdoor air ventilation through the ERV unit does not affect indoor relative humidity.   Read full research article at: https://so02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jars/article/view/104443  

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The Eco-efficiency Model for Outdoor Environmental Design of the Mixed-use Real Estate Development in Bangkok, Thailand

The Eco-efficiency Model for Outdoor Environmental Design of the Mixed-use Real Estate Development in Bangkok, Thailand

By RISC | 3 weeks ago

  Nowadays, the dramatic increase of urban land developments affects various environmental problems, especially in urban heat and the reduction of natural porosity surfaces, then increasing outdoor temperature and surface water runoff problems. These problems relate to urban residents' outdoor living, especially in the large mixed-use real estate developments in Bangkok; the capital city of Thailand. Therefore, the Magnolia Quality Development Corporation Limited (MQDC) has concerned about mitigating such problems by applying the eco-efficiency modeling to use as a sustainable design guideline for the new project development; named Whizdom 101. The term of eco-efficiency is defined as the ratio of improvement cost per unit of the environmental impacts. This study formulates the eco-efficiency model by using the change in construction cost of the outdoor environment and their impacts which refer to the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) as an indicator for the thermal comfort index of humans and stormwater runoff. The cost is calculated by a simple cost estimation technique. Meanwhile, the microclimate model ENVI-met BioMet (V4) was used for predicting the effect of different design options on outdoor thermal comfort using PET, and the Stormwater Runoff Test (SRT) is also calculated by the academic Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) for Autodesk Infraworks 360 software. The results presented as the prediction function of the eco-efficiency of the outdoor environmental design. Research suggests that previous paving materials are broadly capable of lowering temperatures and improving human thermal comfort, and when integrated with trees have the potential to meet eco-efficiency objectives. Moreover, the models can be used as a useful guideline for the outdoor environmental design of the Whizdom 101 to toward the most eco-friendly for urban residents’ outdoor living of mixed-use real estate development in Bangkok, Thailand.   Read full research article at: https://so02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jars/article/view/165416   References: Boonmee, K. (2005). Eco-efficiency and competitiveness - State-of-the-Art and perspectives in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) Chappell, E. (2015). Autodesk Drainage Design for InfraWorks 360 Essentials: John Wiley & Sons. Höppe, P. (1999). The physiological equivalent temperature – a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. International Journal of Biometeorology, 43(2), 71-75. Huppes, G., & Ishikawa, M. (2005). A framework for quantified eco-efficiency analysis. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9(4), 25-41. Jaber, F., Woodson, D., LaChance, C., & York, C. (2012). Stormwater Management: Rain Gardens: Texas A&M Agrilife Extensiono. Document Number) Klaylee, J. (2015). The Assessment of Physical Design for Outdoor Thermal Comfort: Case Study of Thammasat University (Rangsit Center) (in Thai). Thammasat University, Patumthani. Lehni, M., & Pepper, J. (2000). Eco-efficiency creating more value with less impact. Geneva, Switzerland: World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) McCuen, R. H., & Bondelid, T. R. (1981). Relation between Curve Number and Runoff Coefficient. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division, 107(4), 395-400. Rinchumpoo, D. (2012). The rating tool of subdivision neighbourhood sustainability design (SNSD) for Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR), Thailand: An eco-efficiency modelling approach. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Shonnard, D. R., Kicherer, A., & Saling, P. (2003). Industrial applications using BASF eco-efficiency analysis: Perspectives on green engineering principles. Environmental Science & Technology, 37(23), 5340-5348. Simion-Melinte, C. (2016). Factors Influencing The Choice Of Cost Estimates Types And The Accuracy Of Estimates For Construction Projects. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the International Management Conference. Sorvari, J., Antikainen, R., Kosola, M.-L., Hokkanen, P., & Haavisto, T. (2009). Eco-efficiency in contaminated land management in Finland – Barriers and development needs. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(5), 1715-1727. Sukul, C., Rinchumphu, D., & Suttiwongpan, C. (2017). The Study of Runoff Efficiency in the Garden Area of Middle Tier Housing Project in Bangkok and Vinicity Provinces (in Thai). Paper presented at the ICMSIT 2017: International Conference on Management Science, Innovation, and Technology 2017, Faculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Suropan, P., Rinchumphu, D., & Srivanit, M. (2017). The Study of Eco-efficiency from Outdoor Thermal Impacts for Hi-end Condominium Project in Central Business District of Bangkok (in Thai). Paper presented at the The National Conference on "Vernacular Creativity Wisdom", Faculty of Architecture, Chiang Mai University. Thitisawan, N. (2009). Guidelines for materials selection to enhance post-occupancy satisfaction and reduce environment impact in common area of middle tier single detached house projects (in Thai). Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand.

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